Этимологические дублеты в истории английского языка

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Работа на английском языке. Про историю этимологических дублетов в старо английском языке. Этапы, примеры.

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Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего  профессионального образования




Факультет иностранных языков

Кафедра лингводидактики и межкультурной коммуникации


Реферат по истории английского  языка

на  тему «Этимологические дублеты в истории  английского языка»


Выполнила: студентка группы 4.1.

Троцко  Анастасия

Проверила: канд. филол. наук  доцент

Уткина  Л.Н.


                                                   Москва   2011

       Etymology is the branch of linguistics that studies the origin and development of words and other linguistic forms. The examples of the areas that are studied include the earliest origins of a word, how its meanings and connotations have changed, the meanings and origins of its component parts, whether or how it has spread to other languages, and how its meaning or use has been influenced by other words.  From the point of view of etymology, English vocabulary can be divided into 2 parts: 70% of borrowings in English language, 30% of native words.


This paper is devoted to etymological doublets. So, first, we must consider the etymological structure of the English vocabulary in general. We’ll do it with the help of the following table:


 The Etymological Structure of the English Vocabulary:

The native element The borrowed element
1. Indo-European element means words of roots common to all (or most) languages of the Indo-European group. The words of this group denote elementary concepts without which no human communication would be possible. I. Celtic (5th – 6th c.).
2. Germanic element represents words of roots common to all or most Germanic languages. Some of the main groups of Germanic words are the same as in the Indo-European element.  II. Latin
         1st group: 1st B.C.
         2st group: 7th c.
         3st group: the Renaissance period
3. English Proper element (no earlier than 5th c.): these words have a distinctive feature: they are specifically English, have no cognates in other languages. Examples of English proper words: bird, boy, girl, lord, lady, woman, daisy, always. III. Scandinavian (8th – 11th c.)
IV. French
         1. Norman borrowings: 11th–13th c.
         2. Parisian borrowings (Renaissance)
  V. Greek (Renaissance)
  VI. Italian (Renaissance and later)
  VII. Spanish (Renaissance and later)
  VIII. German
  IX. Indian
  X. Russian and some other groups

        Etymological doublets are words developing from the same word or root, but which entered the given language, in our case English, at different times or through different channels.

Sometimes etymological doublets are the result of borrowing different grammatical forms of the same word.

Example: the Comparative degree of Latin «super» was «superior» which was borrowed into English with the meaning «high in some quality or rank». The Superlative degree (Latin «supremus») in English «supreme» with the meaning «outstanding», «prominent». So «superior» and «supreme» are etymological doublets.


Classifying according to the ultimate source of the doublets we shall receive the following:


Ultimate                 Modern                           Period and channel

source                     doublets


Common Indo-European


*pater                     fatherly    (отцовский)       native

                               paternal    (отцовский)       M.E. French borrowing


Common Germanic


*gher-                       yard      (ярд, сад, двор)         native

                                garden (сад,парк)                 M.E. French borrowing

*gens-                      choose   (выбирать)               native

                                 choice    (выбор)                     M.E. French borrowing

*wer                        ward      (опека, охранять)   native

                                 guard     (охрана)                    M.E. French borrowing

*sker                         shirt     (рубашка)                 native

                                skirt        (юбка)                      M.E. Scandinavian borrowing


The words shirt (рубашка) and skirt (юбка) are etymologically descend from the same root. Shirt is a native word, skirt is a Scandinavian borrowing. Their phonetic shape is different, and yet there is a certain resemblance, which reflects their common origin. Their meanings are also different but easily associated: they both denote articles of clothing.


*skhed                     shatter (осколок, разрушать)              native

                                scatter (разбрасывать, рассеивать)    M.E. Scandinavian borrowing


Sometimes an English word and its Scandinavian doublet were the same in meaning, but slightly different phonetically, and the phonetic form of the Scandinavian borrowing is preserved in the English language, having ousted the English counterpart.

For example, Modern English to give(давать), to get (получать) come from the Scandinavian gefa, geta, which ousted the English 3iefan and 3ietan, respectively.

Similar Modern English words: gift (подарок), forget (забывать), guild (гильдия), gate(ворота), again(снова).



Discus                 disk       (диск, круг)                         O.E. Latin borrowing

                            disc       (диск)                                 N.E. Latin borrowing

moneta                mint      (монетный двор, чеканка ) O.E. Latin borrowing

                            money   (деньги)                               M.E. Latin borrowing

uncia                   inch       (дюйм)                                 O.E. Latin borrowing

                          ounce     (унция, чуточка)                 M.E. Latin borrowing

defectum            defect (недостаток)                 N.E. Latin borrowing

                           defeat (завоевывать)                M.E. Latin borrowing

factum                fact (событие)                           N.E. Latin borrowing

                           feat (подвиг)                              M.E. Latin borrowing

seniorem            senior ( старший, старейший)  N.E. Latin borrowing

                           sir (сэр, господин)                     M.E. Latin borrowing



adamas                diamond( алмаз, бриллиант)        Early M.E. French borrowing

                           adamant (твердый металл)          Later M.E. French borrowing

phantasia             fancy (иллюзия)                            N.E. French borrowing

                            fantasy (воображение,фантазия)  M.E. French borrowing



basam                      balm (бальзам)                  M.E. French borrowing

                                balsam (бальзам)               N.E. Latin borrowing


There are some different ways how etymological doublets are coming to language:


1) one of the doublets is native, the other is borrowed

screw (Scandinavian) (винт) -  shrew ( English)( землеройка) 

2) Both doublets may be borrowed from different languages, but these languages must be co- generic.

сanal (Latin) (канал) - channel (French)( канал)

3) Etymological doublets may be borrowed from the same language but in different historical periods, one word earlier, second later.

travel (Norman borrowing) –  travail (Parisian borrowing)(работа)

  1. Both doublets are native, but one originates from the other.

history ( история) – story(повесть, рассказ); defence (защита) – fence (забор) ; shadow(тень) – shade(тень, полумрак)


The examples of various etymological strata in the Modern English vocabulary mentioned above may serve as a sufficient testimony of a long and complicated history of the English Nation, and the English language. They prove that language changes can be understood only in relation to the life of the people speaking the language.


Список использованной литературы:

1) Антрушина Г.Б. Лексикология английского языка. - М.: Дрофа, 1999. - 288 с.

2) Бабич Г.Н. Лексикология английского языка. - Е-М.: Уральское издательство, Большая медведица, 2005. - 176 c.

3) Резник Р.В. History of the English Language. История английского языка - М.: Флинта, Наука, 2001. - 496 с.

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